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I have a question related to the refuge effect in ecological models. The assumption is that the population of hosts/prey is divided into two groups. One group consists of individuals that are safe from parasitoids/predators and another group consists of individuals that are exposed to parasitoids/predators and can get parasitized. Does it affect the growth rate in the sense that hosts that are in refuge have a bigger growth rate than those that are not in refuge? Are there some known experimental results, some papers or books that deal with this topic?

Differentiate between autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition on the basis of ---

occurrence, food source, and source of energy, presence of chlorophyll,

inorganic substances, ingestion and digestion, position in food chain

Which of the following anthropogenic activities directly contribute to freshwater salinisation in Australia’s inland rivers?


A.       Water abstraction for industry and the cycling of oceanic salt.

B.       Treated wastewater release and groundwater intrusion.

C.       Water abstraction for agriculture and wastewater release.

D.       Dryland salinity.

E.       Poor land management and the weathering of marine derived geology.



21.      Which of the following has been a key driver in the evolution of Australia’s unique biodiversity?


A.       Australia’s prolonged continental separation from Gondwana and the following geographic isolation to other continents

B.       Australia’s expanses of rich and fertile soils, reaching from coasts to the deserts

C.       Australia’s close geographic proximity to the tropical Indian sub-continent

D.       Australia’s wide, sandy coastal regions that follow the entire perimeter of the country

E.       Australia’s steep altitudinal gradient from Mt Kosciuszko to the coastlines

State the first and second law of thermodynamics

what really do the red xs mean ferngully the last rainforest

Venn Diagram. List down several concepts that the society or human beings benefit from biodiversity. On the other circle, enumerate the different challenges and disadvantages that biodiversity suffers as we work our way to acquiring the benefits. On the space where they meet, list down possible ways and strategies on how we could acquire these benefits and needs without compromising the growth process of biodiversity.

1.    A pseudocoelom is found in the following phylum

A)  Cnidaria

B)  Echinodermata

C)  Annelida

D)  Platyhelminthes


What is oxygen debt

Minister of Environment and Tourism in Namibia, seeks to understand the impact of human

activities on the wildlife management in Bwabwata National Park. Imagine, yourself as an ECOLOGIST

assigned to carry out this task, write a report to the Minister describing the methodology you are going

to use, the findings and how you have arrived to those findings (25 marks)

What is the difference in mean fat stores between moose with wolves present and moose with wolves absent (x̄p - x̄a)?